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About the Author: Molière

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, also known by his stage name, Molière, was a French playwright and actor who is considered one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature. Among Molière's best-known dramas are Le Misanthrope, (The Misanthrope), L'Ecole des femmes (The School for Wives), Tartuffe ou l'Imposteur, (Tartuffe or the Hypocrite), L'Avare ou l'École du mensonge (The Miser), Le Malade imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid), and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (The Bourgeois Gentleman).

From a prosperous family and having studied at the Jesuit Clermont College (now Lycée Louis-le-Grand), Molière was well suited to begin a life in the theatre. Thirteen years as an itinerant actor helped to polish his comic abilities while he also began writing, combining Commedia dell'Arte elements with the more refined French comedy.

Through the patronage of a few aristocrats including the brother of Louis XIV, Molière procured a command performance before the King at the Louvre. Performing a classic play by Pierre Corneille and a farce of his own, Le Docteur amoureux (The Doctor in Love), Molière was granted the use of Salle du Petit-Bourbon at the Louvre, a spacious room appointed for theatrical performances. Later, Molière was granted the use of the Palais-Royal. In both locations he found success among the Parisians with plays such as Les Précieuses ridicules (The Affected Ladies), L'École des maris (The School for Husbands) and L'École des femmes (The School for Wives). This royal favour brought a royal pension to his troupe and the title "Troupe du Roi" (The King's Troupe). Molière continued as the official author of court entertainments.

Though he received the adulation of the court and Parisians, Molière's satires attracted criticisms from moralists and the Church. Tartuffe ou l'Imposteur (Tartuffe or the Hypocrite) and its attack on religious hypocrisy roundly received condemnations from the Church while Don Juan was banned from performance. Molière's hard work in so many theatrical capacities began to take its toll on his health and, by 1667, he was forced to take a break from the stage. In 1673, during a production of his final play, Le Malade imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid), Molière, who suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis, was seized by a coughing fit and a haemorrhage while playing the hypochondriac Argan. He finished the performance but collapsed again and died a few hours later. In his time in Paris, Molière had completely reformed French comedy.

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Goodreads rating: 3.79

Paperback, Published in Dec 1998 by Insel

ISBN10: 3458321012 | ISBN13: 9783458321019

Page count: 104

Alceste est un « mélancolique » qui s'aveugle sur lui-même pour mieux condamner les autres. Placé dans une situation sociale comique, amoureux d'une coquette, il voit défiler tous les types humains qu'il réprouve. Molière a enfermé toute une époque dans un salon mondain, pour critiquer une société ambitieuse, avide et cynique. Il donne parfois raison à Alceste, lui qui refuse de se soumettre au mensonge et à l'artifice, lui qui affirme radicalement « J'ai tort, ou j'ai raison. » Alceste n'est pas en accord avec son temps : il rejette les compromis, proteste contre la frivolité des salons et la fausseté des rapports humains. Le Misanthrope est ainsi la pièce la plus complexe de Molière, car la plus fidèle aux contradictions de l'homme et de la société.

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